Book 1:



Art. 349. The following persons shall exercise substitute parental authority:

(1) Guardians;

(2) Teachers and professors;

(3) Heads of children’s homes, orphanages, and similar institutions;

(4) Directors of trade establishments, with regard to apprentices;

(5) Grandparents;

(6) The oldest brother or sister.

Art. 350. The persons named in the preceding article shall exercise reasonable supervision over the conduct of the child.

Art. 351. A general guardian or a guardian over the person shall have the same authority over the ward’s person as the parents. With regard to the child’s property, the Rules of Court on guardianship shall govern.

Art. 352. The relations between teacher and pupil, professor and student, are fixed by government regulations and those of each school or institution. In no case shall corporal punishment be countenanced. The teacher or professor shall cultivate the best potentialities of the heart and mind of the pupil or student.

Art. 353. Apprentices shall be treated humanely. No corporal punishment against the apprentice shall be permitted.

Art. 354. Grandparents and in their default the oldest brother or sister shall exercise parental authority in case of death or absence of the child’s parents. If the parents are living, or if the child is under guardianship, the grandparents may give advice and counsel to the child, to the parents or to the guardian.

Art. 355. Substitute parental authority shall be exercised by the grandparents in the following order:

(1) Paternal grandparents;

(2) Maternal grandparents.


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